Provides a unique and timely re-examination of key issues such as strategies in context, strategy instruction, and strategy research methods by numerous experts in the field. Offers an invaluable overview of what is known from empirical research about listening, reading, speaking, writing, vocabulary, and grammar strategies. Proposes a clear and focused research agenda for the next decades.
W książce są omówione podstawowe zagadnienia teorii dydaktyki języków obcych, m.in.: pojęcie komunikacji językowej wraz z jej uwarunkowaniami mentalnymi jako procesami, znaczenie poprawności językowej, status błędu popełnianego przez uczących się języka, jego przyczyny i interpretacje, problem nauczania gramatyki języka obcego oraz rozwoju wiedzy metajęzykowej. Książka może służyć naukowcom glottodydaktykom, a także jako podręcznik nauczycielom języków obcych i studentom.
Aimed at beginning to intermediate undergraduates and above, this textbook is designed to help the student achieve optimal success as a language learner and user. It teaches students to understand their own preferences in learning, develop individual learning plans and approaches, and select appropriate learning strategies. Each chapter contains an overview and review section, with learning activities that students can carry out either individually or in classrooms.
The Roles of Language in CLIL provides a theoretically-based approach to the integration of language and content in primary and secondary contexts addressed to a range of stakeholders in Content and Language Integrated Learning. Adopting the framework of systemic functional linguistics, this book raises practitioners' awareness of how language functions in CLIL. Drawing on their wide experience as CLIL educators and researchers, the authors explore data collected in real CLIL classrooms from two interrelated perspectives: the CLIL classroom as an interactional context for developing language and content, and the genres and registers through which the meanings of the different academic subjects are enacted. From the analysis of this corpus of data, the authors provide a rich description of how CLIL students' language works and may be expected to develop.
Based on a synthesis of classroom SLA research that has helped to shape evolving perspectives of content-based instruction since the introduction of immersion programs in Montreal more than 40 years ago, this book presents an updated perspective on integrating language and content in ways that engage second language learners with language across the curriculum. A range of instructional practices observed in immersion and content-based classrooms is highlighted to set the stage for justifying a counterbalanced approach that integrates both content-based and form-focused instructional options as complementary ways of intervening to develop a learner’s interlanguage system. A counterbalanced approach is outlined as an array of opportunities for learners to process language through content by means of comprehension, awareness, and production mechanisms, and to negotiate language through content by means of interactional strategies involving teacher scaffolding and feedback.
Whether we grow up with one, two, or several languages during our early years of life, many of us will learn a second, foreign, or heritage language in later years. The field of Second language acquisition (SLA, for short) investigates the human capacity to learn additional languages in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, after the first language --in the case of monolinguals-- or languages --in the case of bilinguals-- have already been acquired. Understanding Second Language Acquisition offers a wide-encompassing survey of this burgeoning field, its accumulated findings and proposed theories, its developed research paradigms, and its pending questions for the future. The book zooms in and out of universal, individual, and social forces, in each case evaluating the research findings that have been generated across diverse naturalistic and formal contexts for second language acquisition. It assumes no background in SLA and provides helpful chapter-by-chapter summaries and suggestions for further reading.
What distinguishes this book is its broad, yet thorough, view of theory, process, and research on adult second-language reading. Offering extensive discussions of upper-register second-language texts (both expository and narrative) that adult second-language readers encounter daily across the globe, it also presents an assessment schema for second-language text comprehension as well as for the assessment of teaching. This book: includes languages other than English in the discussion of second language reading, is firmly anchored in a theory of second language reading - the concept of compensatory processing, emphasizes the multi-dimensionality and dynamic nature of L2 reading development, focuses on comprehension of upper-register literary texts, balances theory and instructional practices.
This book, by one of the leading figures in applied linguistics, provides a wide-ranging and comprehensive treatment of the major issues. Its six chapters take the reader through the major tenets and debates in the field and are essential reading for anyone involved in applied linguistics and language teaching today. It outlines the historical roots of the field and its major developments over the years, and examines current issues such as language modelling and the analysis of discourse. While not neglecting theory, the book takes a practical approach and language teachers, as well as university level students, will find it a useful read.
Theories in Second Language Acquisition surveys the major theoretical approaches currently used in second language acquisition (SLA) research, providing a systematic and coherent presentation in a single source. Each chapter follows a consistent chapter model constructed around the same set of questions, including "What is the Theory?" "What are the major constructs?" "What counts as evidence?" "What are the common misunderstandings about the theory?" The answers to these questions are written at a basic level by a leading expert in the respective theoretical model. As a result, the volume as a whole presents complex ideas in an accessible manner.
A tremendous timesaver for teachers, this indispensable book contains more than 200 word, picture, and letter sorts, ready to photocopy and use in K-3 classrooms. Provided are engaging categorization activities that span the stages of emergent, letter name, and within word pattern spelling. Also featured are decoding activities, assessment materials, tips from other teachers, recommended links to children's literature, and strategies for working with diverse students, including English-language learners and struggling older readers.
This book relates language testing practice to current views of communicative language teaching and testing. It builds on the theoretical background expounded in Bachman's Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing and examines the design, planning, and organization of tests. The book is divided into three sections which discuss 1) objectives and expectations, the context of language testing, and the abilities to be tested; 2) the process of test development, including blueprints, resources, operationalization, and scoring methods; and 3) ten examples which illustrate the principles discussed in Parts One and Two.
*10 self-contained lessons on each language area -- reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary *Each lesson is designed to last around 55 minutes *Suitable for Advanced level students *Detailed teacher's notes with clear guidance on preparation, timing etc. *Practical layout with teacher's notes next to photocopiable pages.
Researching Pedagogic Tasks brings together a series of empirical studies into the use of pedagogical tasks for second language learning, with a view to better understanding the structure of tasks, their impact on students, and their use by teachers. The volume starts with an introduction to the background and key issues in the topic area and is then organised into three sections: the first section focuses on the language and learning of students on tasks the second on the use of tasks in the language classroom the third on the use of tasks for language testing Each section begins with a succinct section introduction, and the volume concludes with an afterword relating the theme of the volume to issues in curriculum development. The chapters include both experimental and qualitative approaches to the topic, some providing original accounts of specific studies, others offering overviews of linked series of studies.
Research results over the past decades have consistently demonstrated that a key reason why many second language learners fail--while some learners do better with less effort--lies in various learner attributes such as personality traits, motivation, or language aptitude. In psychology, these attributes have traditionally been called "individual differences." The scope of individual learner differences is broad--ranging from creativity to learner styles and anxiety--yet there is no current, comprehensive, and unified volume that provides an overview of the considerable amount of research conducted on various language learner differences, until now.
The book is motivated by very practical purposes, namely to help researchers to increase the efficiency of their questionnaires and to avoid possible pitfalls. Accordingly, special care has been taken to avoid unnecesary jargon, to make the text accessible, and to relate everything to real-life situations. Illustrated by concrete examples, the book offers a thorough but accessible overview of the theory of questionnaire design, and administration and processing, with a special view on second language research applications. The conclusion summarizes the main points of questionnaire theory in a straightforward checklist that offers an easy-to-use tool for researchers. Researchers and students in TESOL and second-language programs and applied linguistics, with secondary markets in other language research (e.g., child language) will find this book useful.
The "Pilgrim Longman Resource Books" series provide a range of practical lessons in recipe format. They are written by experienced English language teachers. The activities can be used as the basis for lessons, as a departure point for classroom development and creativity, or as last minute time fillers.
Teaching Practice is an essential reference for both EFL teachers and trainers on pre-service training courses. chapters systematically cover the main challenges for new teachers. It takes account of current methodology and is suitable for use on Cambridge CELTA courses. Contains basic guidelines and practical information to allow maximum learning from teaching practice sessions. Increases awareness of the classroom situation and covers basic classroom skills. Provides information on how to run a successful teaching practice course for teacher trainers.
Although proficiency in vocabulary has long been recognized as basic to reading proficiency, there has been a paucity of research on vocabulary teaching and learning over the last two decades. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Education recently sponsored a Focus on Vocabulary conference that attracted the best-known and most active researchers in the vocabulary field. This book is the outgrowth of that conference. It presents scientific evidence from leading research programs that address persistent issues regarding the role of vocabulary in text comprehension. Part I examines how vocabulary is learned; Part II presents instructional interventions that enhance vocabulary; and Part III looks at which words to choose for vocabulary instruction.
Gives you a thorough overview of theory and research relating to second-language reading. Includes practical suggestions for teaching reading in different contexts. Presents a variety of strategies for reading and teaching reading and discusses how to use them in appropriate contexts. Sets the skill of reading in a wider psychological and social context Can be used as a textbook or self-study text for trainee teachers or as a reference guide for practising teachers.